Semantics as Model-Based Science.
Draft. Forthcoming 2017. In B. Rabern and D. Ball, The Science of Meaning. Oxford University Press. (21 pages) 

Expressivism by Force.
Draft. Forthcoming 2017. In D. Fogal, D. Harris and M. Moss (eds.) New Work on Speech Acts. Oxford University Press. (37 pages) 

Belief as Question-Sensitive
2016. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Online first version. (25 pages)

Three Notions of Dynamicness in Language. (with Daniel Rothschild)
2016. Linguistics & Philosophy 39(4): 333-355. (23 pages)

Modalities of Normality.
2016. In N. Charlow and M. Chrisman (eds.) Deontic Modality. Oxford University Press, 230-55. (25 pages)

Epistemic Modality De Re. 
2015. Ergo 2 (19): 475-527. (54 pages)

On the Dynamics of Conversation. (with Daniel Rothschild)
2015. Noûs. Online first version. (25 pages) 

Quantifying In from a Fregean Perspective. 
2015. Philosophical Review 124 (2): 207-53. (47 pages) N.B.: I am not a Fregean.

Actually, Actually.
2015. Analysis 75 (2): 185-191. (7 pages)

Semantics and Metasemantics in the Context of Generative Grammar
2014. In A. Burgess and B. Sherman (eds.) Metasemantics. Oxford University Press, 17-54. (38 pages) 

Epistemic Modals and Context. (with Joshua Knobe)
2014. Semantics & Pragmatics 7 (10): 1–21. (21 pages)

Bayesian Expressivism
2012. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, CXII (2): 123-60. (38 pages) 

Context Probabilism
2012. Proceedings of the 18th Amsterdam Colloquium: 12-21. (10 pages)

A Counterexample to Modus Tollens
2012. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (6): 1001-24. (24 pages)

Nonfactualism about Epistemic Modality
2011. In A. Egan and B. Weatherson (eds.) Epistemic Modality. Oxford University Press, 295-332. (38 pages)

Probability Operators
2010. Philosophy Compass 5 (11): 916-37. (22 pages)

Epistemic Modals. 
2007. Mind 116 (464): 983–1026. (44 pages)


replies, reviews, overviews, notes, miscellany

Iffy Knowledge
2016. Handout for talk at Stalnakerfest, MIT. (2 pages)

Comments on Moss.
2014. Slides for the Rutgers Semantics Workshop, on Sarah Moss's 'On the semantics and pragmatics of epistemic vocabulary'. (19 pages)

Introductory Notes on Dynamic Semantics. 
2012/2013. Updated version of a paper that appeared in G. Russell and D. Fara (eds.) Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language. This paper contains a fairly detailed introduction to Heim’s file change semantics. (40 pages)

On the Dynamics of Conversation. (with Daniel Rothschild)
2012. This is the old version of the paper, which was cited in some places before the final 2015 version. (38 pages)

Stanley on the De Se.
2012. Read at an author-meets-critics session on Jason Stanley’s book Know How, Pacific APA. (10 pages)

Comments on Mark Schroeder, Being For.
2012. Read at an author-meets-critics session, Central APA. (13 pages)

Meaning in a Disoriented World.
2010. Course notes on orientational language, co-authored with Geoffrey Lee. (30 pages)

More on Epistemic Modals
2009. Mind 118, 471: 785-793. (9 pages)

The Language of Probability.
2009. Notes for a talk to Berkeley linguistics. (16 pages)

More on the Language of Probability.
2009. NYU graduate seminar notes exploring the application of some ideas from the gradable adjectives literature to gradable epistemic modals. (7 pages)

Modality and Inquiry
2008. MIT PhD dissertation. Most of the first chapter was published as ‘Epistemic Modals’ (2007). Most of the second chapter went into ’Nonfactualism about Epistemic Modality’ (2011). Most of the third chapter is in 'Figure and Ground in Logical Space' (2016). 

Notes for a talk to Amherst Linguistics.
2006. Inter alia these notes discuss some ideas about gradable epistemic modality. (16 pages)

Comments on MacFarlane.
2006. Read at the Michigan Philosophy and Linguistics Workshop. This discusses a 2006 draft of MacFarlane’s 2011 paper ‘Epistemic modalities are assessment-sensitive’. (11 pages)

Epistemic Modals.
2005. MITWPL 51. (42 pages)

New Work on Modality
2005. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, volume 51. (Co-edited with J. Gajewski, V. Hacquard, and B. Nickel.)

Of Metaphors and Darwinism: Deconstructing Genetic Programming’s Chimera. (with J. Daida, P. Litvak, G. Eickhoff, and J. Polito.)
1999. Proceedings of the 1999 Congress on Evolutionary Computation.

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